Passenger Data

Introduction

You can access Passenger Data by selecting Edit, Passenger Data, or by pressing the  button on the Toolbar.


Figure 9  Passenger Data dialog, Standard Mode

The Passenger Data dialog contains information about the passengers using the elevators.  There are three modes in which you can enter your data:

Standard

This provides a quick and easy way to enter data which is sufficiently detailed for most cases.

Advanced

Advanced Data can only be used when the Analysis type is Simulation or General analysis.  Use this for detailed modelling, when you need to define passenger destinations more precisely, consider changing traffic levels, or introduce different types of loads.

File

This option is only available when the Analysis type is Simulation.  It allows you to specify a list of passengers entered in a text file rather than use Elevate’s passenger generator.

You can change between the modes by clicking on the radio buttons labelled Standard, Advanced and File.

Your selection of Measurement System in Analysis Data will determine whether Elevate asks for data in Metric or U.S. units.  Metric units will be assumed for discussion in this chapter.


STANDARD MODE

Arrangement

To operate efficiently, it is sometimes necessary to restrict how passengers use the elevators.  For example, double deck elevators maximum efficiency will normally correspond to the lower cab serving odd numbered floors and the upper cab serving even number floors.  The Arrangement options allow the traffic generated by Elevate to be restricted in this way.

The Conventional arrangement has no restrictions.

The Double Deck with no odd to even floor traffic arrangement assumes that entrance floors are in pairs.  Passengers travelling to/from odd floors load at the lower entrance of the floor pair.  Passengers travelling to/from even floors load at the upper entrance of the floor pair.  Interfloor traffic is restricted to passengers travelling between odd-to-odd floors and even-to-even floors.

Other arrangements are appropriate to other systems (customised versions of Elevate may have other arrangements available).  The first floor served above upper zone variable relates to a proprietary system and is not active in the general release version of Elevate.  If you are designing a system that benefits from traffic being arranged in a specific way, please contact Technical Support.


Template

This input is only applicable and active when the Analysis type is Simulation.  Using the floor population you have entered, Elevate will generate traffic based on the selected template.

Some templates require additional parameters.  Additional parameters are greyed out unless they are required.

A description of all the templates and their parameters is given in Appendix A.


Demand (% pop per 5 mins)

This input is only applicable and active when the Analysis type is Enhanced up peak, General analysis or Double Deck General analysis.  It is also used for some of the Simulation templates, as discussed in Appendix A.

Handling Capacity is the % of the given population wanting to use the elevators in a 5 minute period.

If the Analysis type is Enhanced up peak, all traffic is assumed to originate from the lowest floor of the building, and travel up the building.

If the Analysis Type is General analysis or Double Deck General analysis the traffic may be divided into the following components.

% incoming

the part of the total traffic that corresponds to passengers arriving at the entrance floor(s), and travelling up the building, or down to any floors below the entrance floor(s).

% outgoing

the part of the total traffic that corresponds to passengers arriving at floors above (or below) the entrance floor(s), and travelling to the entrance floor(s).

% interfloor

the part of the total arrival rate that corresponds to passengers travelling between floors other than the entrance floor(s).

The population of individual floors is used to determine  (i) the attraction of each floor as a destination for incoming traffic, (ii) the origin of outgoing traffic and (iii) the origin and destination attraction of interfloor traffic.

The %incoming, %outgoing, %interfloor terminology is also used in some of the simulation templates.


Loading Time

The time taken, in seconds, for a single passenger to load the car.


Unloading Time

The time taken, in seconds, for a single passenger to unload from the car.


Passenger Mass

The nominal mass of a passenger in kilograms.


Capacity Factor by Mass

Capacity Factor by Mass (%) allows for passengers not loading the elevators to their rated capacity.

When the Analysis type is Enhanced up peak or General analysis you do not need to enter a value.  As you are entering details of how many passengers are using the elevators, Elevate will calculate the resulting Capacity Factor by Mass.  When the Analysis type is Simulation, if the Capacity Factor by Mass is x%, a passenger will not enter the car if, by doing so, the car will be greater than x% full by weight.  In these instances, Elevate assumes that passengers will wait for the elevator doors to close, and for the elevator to depart before re-registering their hall call.

Passenger Area

The nominal car area of assigned to each passenger in m².


Capacity Factor by Area

Capacity Factor by Area (%) allows for passengers not loading the elevators to their rated capacity.

In elevator traffic analysis and simulation, the maximum number of passenger that will fit into a car is often based on a calculation using Capacity, Passenger Mass and Capacity Factor by Mass.  However, in reality, the passenger decision whether or not to get into a car is more often based on the Car Area and the Passenger Area already taken by other passengers already in the car.   In some instances both are significant.  For example, with heavy loads (e.g. if you are modelling heavy goods items as passengers) an overload condition is detected based on mass.

If you do not want to consider area, Elevate will ignore area calculations if the Passenger Area is set to 0 m².

When the Analysis type is Enhanced up peak or General analysis you do not need to enter a value.  As you are entering details of how many passengers are using the elevators, Elevate will calculate the resulting Capacity Factor by Area.  When the Analysis type is Simulation, if the Capacity Factor by Area is x%, a passenger will not enter the car if, by doing so, the car will be greater than x% full by area.  In these instances, Elevate assumes that passengers will wait for the elevator doors to close, and for the elevator to depart before re-registering their hall call.

Stair Factor

Stair Factor provides a quick and easy way to make an allowance for stair (or escalator) usage in your calculations.

If you enter a Stair Factor of x, Elevate assumes that x% of the passengers will walk when travelling one floor, (x% of x%) will walk when travelling two floors, and (x% of x% of x%) will walk when travelling three floors.  For example if you enter a Stair Factor of 40%, Elevate will assume the following split of passengers between the stairs and the elevators:

 

Table 9.1   Example division of stair and elevator usage for a stair factor of 40%

No of floors to
be travelled 
% passengers
using stairs 
% passengers
using elevators 
1 40 60
2 16 84
3 6 94
4 3 97
5 1 99
6 0 100

If the assumptions of the Stair Factor are not appropriate, use a value of 0% and modify the floor populations or arrival rates and destination probabilities instead.  You should always use a Stair Factor of 0% if the building includes an express zone.


Entrance level bias

This input table is only applicable and active when the Analysis type is Simulation, General analysis or Double Deck General analysis.

Entrance level bias defines the relative demand of incoming and outgoing traffic to the entrance floors.  The entrance floors must be selected in Building Data before they will appear in this table.

If the “Ground” is the only entrance/exit, then set the % bias for this floor to 100.  If there is a “Basement Car Park” it is likely that some passengers arrive and leave by this entrance.  If, for example, the bias is set to 30% for the “Basement Car Park” and 70% for the “Ground”, then Elevate will divide incoming and outgoing traffic between the floors on this basis.

For double deck elevators, the Entrance level bias is presented in groups of two floors.  For example, the bias for  “Level -1 and Level –2” could be set to 30%, and the bias for “Level 0 and Level 1” could be 70%.


ADVANCED MODE

Advanced Data can only be used when the Analysis type is Simulation, General analysis or Double Deck General analysis.

Entering Passenger Data in Advanced mode allows you to enter separate destination probabilities for passengers travelling from each floor.

If the analysis type is Simulation, you can also define a number of periods each with their own set of arrival rates and destination probabilities.  Each period has a start time, end time, loading times, and passenger mass, etc.  Periods may overlap in time.  This allows Elevate to model changing levels of traffic, and to introduce refreshment trolleys, goods loads, etc. into the passenger traffic flow.

When you change from Standard to Advanced mode the data Elevate gives you the option of filling the Advanced mode tables based on the data you have entered in Standard mode.

In Advanced mode, data is entered in a table.  As in Building Data this table operates like a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet; you can use formulae, speed fills, drag and drop, etc. to help with data entry.


Figure 10   Passenger Data dialog, Advanced Modem, All Periods tab

Click on the All periods tab to select this page.  Enter the Start Time, End Time, etc. (see preceding Standard mode section for definitions).

The Notes column is normally used for reference, but can also be used to define special passenger behaviour.  Multiple commands can be applied separated by a space.  If the special behaviour is needed for multiple periods, the command must be repeated in each row.

 

Table 9.2   Commands for special passenger behaviour

Command Special behaviour
#ARRIVAL_REAR The passengers in this period will arrive at the rear landing
and enter the car through the rear doors. 
#DESTINATION_REAR The passenger will exit through the rear doors when the car
reaches the passengers' destination. 
#LOAD_ONLY_IF_CAR_SERVES_DESTINATION The passenger will not get into a car which does not serve his
or her destination.  This behaviour can also be selected in the
File mode using the "Car not service destination decision"
variable. 

 

Period 1, 2, ….




Figure 11   Passenger Data dialog, Advanced Mode, Periods 1 tab

For all rows completed in All Periods, you must complete the corresponding arrival rate and destination probability table, which can be selected by clicking on the 1, 2, etc. tabs.

Arrival rates are entered in persons per five minutes.

Destination probabilities are entered as percentages, e.g. if the arrival rate is x persons per five minutes and the destination probability to the nth floor is y%, then y% of the x persons per five minutes are travelling to the nth floor.  Note that destination probabilities from any level to the same level must be zero as passengers do not take an elevator from one floor to the same floor.

For double deck elevators, destination probabilities from odd to even floors (and vice versa) will normally be zero as it is assumed that the lower car serves levels 1, 3, 5, etc. and the upper car serves levels 2, 4, 6, etc.

Passengers are created for the simulation using a random number generator, and applying Arrival Rate and Destination Probability data.

FILE MODE

File mode can only be used when the Analysis type is Simulation.  In this mode Elevate will load a list of passengers from a comma separated text file when a simulation is run.  This mode is normally used for testing control systems, rather than for traffic analysis.  For each passenger you are required to specify:

Arrival time

The time the passenger starts his or her journey, in seconds past midnight.

Arrival floor

Where the passenger starts his or her journey, where 1 corresponds to the lowest floor as defined in building data.

Destination floor

Where the passenger is travelling to, where 1 corresponds to the lowest floor as defined in building data.

Mass

The mass of the passenger (kg).

Capacity factor by mass

The capacity factor by mass that this passenger will base his/her decision on when deciding whether or not to get into the car or wait for another elevator.

Loading time

The passenger loading time (s).

Unloading time

The passenger unloading time (s).

Car not service destination decision

This option is to address scenarios when not all elevators serve all floors.  If the passenger’s call is answered by a car which does not serve the destination floor, he/she may choose to either:

  1. Not get in.  Wait for this car to depart, then re-register the hall call.
  2. Get in anyway and travel in the car as far as possible towards the destination floor.  Then get out of the car and walk the remaining floors.   Set this parameter to 1 or 2 according to how you want the passenger to behave.  Note:  in destination control systems, the user enters their destination, so a car serving the passenger’s destination will be sent anyway.

A typical file with 4 passengers may look like this:

801,8,7,75,80,1.2,1.2,2
810,6,3,75,80,1.2,1.2,2
840,1,12,75,80,1.2,1.2,2
890,4,5,75,80,1.2,1.2,2

Note - there needs to be a blank line at the end of your text file, to ensure that the last passenger is picked up by the simulation run.