Safety Devices and Systems

An overview is provided of the safety devices in lift systems.  The testing of some of the devices is discussed as such as the safety gear system.

Overview of mechanical Components and Arrangement

Main components (ropes, sheave, guide rails, sheave, gearbox, buffers); different reeving ratios and different arrangements.

Control Systems

Overview of the logic and speed controller.

Motors and drive systems:  Types of motors and drives used; advantages and disadvantages of each; examples on motor sizing and selection; the use of shaft encoders for speed feedback;  the use of linear shaft feedback devices.

Energy Consumption

Energy Consumption of lifts:  Methods of measurement; standards; manual methods for calculation; advanced methods using simulation.

Noise, ride quality and vibration

Overview; standards; methods of measurements and measuring equipment; standards; typical value in specifications.


General Arrangement of a Traction Lift:  the Cabin; the frame; the ropes, the guide rails; the drive system; the motor; the gearbox; the mechanical brake; the sheave; the ropes; the buffers. 

General Arrangement of Hydraulic lifts.  

Notes on machine room-less lifts.

Preferred Speed and Capacities and Space Considerations

Preferred speeds and capacities of lifts; preferred dimensions; notes on speed selection; speed selection for passenger lifts.

Space considerations:  Shaft space; pit and overhead; machine room layout; critical dimensions; door openings; ISO 4190; occupied spaces under lift pits.

The Planning Process of Lift Systems

Steps in the Planning of lift systems:  Overview of the traffic design; assessing design; building usage; arrangements of lifts in groups; 

Fire Fighting Lifts

Fire fighting lifts and evacuation considerations:  How the fire fighting lifts fit within the overall fire fighting strategy for the building; fire fighting lifts; construction and operation; refuge spaces; fire fighting shafts.

Goods Lifts

Notes on goods lifts:  The need for goods lifts; preferred sizes and dimensions; rules of thumb on use in buildings and shopping centres.

Up Peak RTT calculations

Introduction to the concept of the Up Peak Round Trip Time (RTT) calculation and its implementation in Elevate. The up peak RTT calculation is widely applied to office buildings and is based on the analysis of the morning incoming peak. All passengers are assumed to arrive at the ground floor and travel up the building.  Examples of low and high rise office buildings including express zones.

General Analysis RTT calculations

Introduction to the General Analysis RTT calculation and its implementation in Elevate. This RTT calculation is similar in approach to the up peak calculation, but allows people to arrive at any floor. Applied in its advanced mode, the General Analysis RTT allows you to define a complete arrival rate and destination probability matrix. Example to compare calculation results with the Up Peak RTT. Examples to apply additional features of General Analysis. Limitations of RTT calculations.

Simulation Calculations

RTT calculations are based on the analysis of a single, average "round trip" of an elevator. In simulation the movement of every passenger and every elevator is modeled. Description of the implementation of simulation in Elevate. Discussion of features unique to simulation. Examples. Comparison of results between simulation and RTT calculations. 

Control Systems

Introduction to elevator dispatching. Discussion of control systems implemented in Elevate's simulation including conventional and destination control. Review of other AI technologies applied in elevator control systems. Understanding important issues which can cause even intelligent dispatcher perform badly. Examples.

Elevator Traffic

Discussion of up peak traffic, mixed traffic, and arrival rated/destination probability matrices.  Generating traffic with Elevate templates.  Using spreadsheets to generate traffic matrices for complex scenarios not addressed by standard traffic generation tools.  Examples.

Destination Control

Discussion of destination control, performance in different traffic conditions.  Comparing traffic performance with elevators using conventional control.  How and why performance is enhanced during up peak.  Implications of reducing the number of elevators on the basis of an up peak boost.  Examples.  Usability issues.  Other benefits of destination control.

High Rise Buildings

Application of Elevate to buildings with multiple zones, sky lobbies and shuttle elevators.  Discussion and analysis of double deck elevators with round trip time and simulation calculations.  Examples.

Measuring Traffic and Elevator Performance

Use of conventional traffic analyzers, assessment of output.  Elevate software tools to assist in logging of data collected manually using a team of observers.  Analysis of results and simulation based on surveys.  Additional observations to make which may impact traffic performance.  Using survey data to assess the benefits of modernization with respect to traffic performance.  Using Elevate to monitor the operation of real elevators.  Application of Elevate as an advanced traffic logging and performance analysis tool.


Discussion of the importance of kinematics including velocity/acceleration/jerk, rollback, start delay and leveling times.  Measuring and assessing kinematics.  Impact on traffic performance.  Comparing ideal and actual kinematics.  Modeling measured kinematics in Elevate.